Know Your Eye


The human body is a wonderful creation and the eye is a small but highly complex organ within it. Similar to a camera, its functioning involves focusing of light onto the light sensitive back layer (retina) which forms the image. The image is then sent via the optic nerve to the brain where it is interpreted. Good eyesight thus requires a good quality image(no haziness), focused sharply (no spectacle number) on a properly functioning retina to be transmitted along healthy nerves to the perfect brain where information from both eyes(properly aligned-no squint) can be combined (3D vision) and understood.

The movement and alignment of eyes are brought about with the help of 6 muscles arranged around the eye, each moving the eye in a particular direction. 3 nerves that travel from the brain to the eye supply these muscles in each eye. Any problem in these can result in a squint .

Problems can occur in any part of the eye or surrounding area.

The eye is often involved in many systemic diseases. People suffering from these should get routine eye tests done even if they have no eye complaints. The common ones are:-
Diabetes, Hypertension, Thyroid disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Tuberculosis etc

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EyeBasics


The human body is a marvelous creation and the eye is a small but highly complex organ within it. Similar to a camera, its functioning involves focusing of light onto the light sensitive back layer (retina) which forms the image. The image is then sent via the optic nerve to the brain where it is interpreted. Good eyesight thus requires a good quality image(no haziness), focused sharply (no spectacle number) on a properly functioning retina to be transmitted along healthy nerves to the perfect brain where information from both eyes(properly aligned) can be combined (3D vision) and understood. The movement and alignment of eyes are brought about with the help of 6 muscles arranged around the eye, each moving the eye in a particular direction. 3 nerves that travel from the brain to the eye supply these muscles in each eye. Any problem in these can result in a squint . Problems can occur in any part of the eye or surrounding area.

The eye is often involved in many systemic diseases. People suffering from these should get routine eye tests done even if they have no eye complaints. The common ones are:- Diabetes, Hypertension, Thyroid disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Tuberculosis etc

Common eye complaints and their causes are as follows:

POOR VISION :
Can be for distance or near or both. Could be because of refractive error(spectacle number),corneal problems, cataract, disease of the back portion of eye and retina etc. distortion of images, wavy lines etc are caused by retinal disorders.
REDNESS :
Can be present in many disease ranging from simple things like dryness and allergy to dangerous eyesight threatening problems like acute glaucoma or eye infection. Never self medicate or buy eyedrops directly from the pharmacy for just ‘redness’.
WATERING :
this is a common symptom and can be the result of problems in the eyelid position, block in tear duct, dryness, allergy, infection etc.
DOUBLE VISION :
Multiple images can often be because of cataract. Double vision however is usually due to a problem in the muscles or the nerves that control them.

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What to expect in an eye test


An eye test is not something to be feared! There are no uncomfortable or painful procedures. For first-timers, here’s a step by step guide to what you can expect .

  • After OPD registration you will first visit the optometry room where a trained optometrist will ask a detailed history regarding your complaint, any previous treatment and your medical history. Please give an accurate account of any medical problems you may have had even if you think they are not related to your eye complaint. Let us know of any drug allergies!
  • He/she will do a torch light examination of your eye and then record your eye pressure on a machine that blows(gently!) a puff of air onto your eyes.(NON CONTACT TONOMETER)
  • Another machine will take a recording of your computerized eye number as you look into its screen, (AUTOREFRACTOMETER)
  • The optometrist will then test your eyesight for distance and near and check your spectacle number.(SUBJECTIVE REFRACTION)
  • After this initial work-up your file goes to the ophthalmologist who may ask for pupil dilatation.
  • To dilate your pupils our OPD staff will put eyedrops in your eyes at regular intervals (2-3 times). Pupil dilatation typically takes about 30 minutes in an adult and 45-60 minutes in a child. After dilatation you can expect glare in bright light and blurred near vision for 4-6 hours. Those who have to drive back may opt for dilatation on a separate visit. Children especially those younger than 7-10 years require different and longer acting dilating drops the effect of which may last for upto 2 days (in some cases longer). Parents are requested to inform us about any ongoing test or exams. Please note that barring a few exceptions dilatation is compulsory in children in order to ensure correct eye power measurement.
  • Some patients may require a detailed check up of eye alignment and muscle balance specially those who complain of a squint/double vision (ORTHOPTIC WORK-UP)
  • Finally the ophthalmologist takes a look at your eyes using a special chair unit and magnifying system (SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION). He/she will perform a detailed examination of your eyes right from the eyelids to the back of the eye (retina) which is seen using a small lens (FUNDUS EXAMINATION-90D). You may be requested to lie back on the reclining chair unit for a more detailed retina examination in which all parts of your retina even the extreme corners are examined, sometimes using a small pen like instrument to gently press your eyeball (INDIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPY). As per the history and examination findings certain special tests may be required which include staining your eyes with a non irritant dye, additional testing with lenses (GONIOSCOPY), eye pressure measurement (APPLANATION TONOMETRY) etc.
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Eye Care Tips


Routine eye check ups
(a.)Healthy balanced diet is important for proper functioning but does not affect refractive errors
(b.) Keep eyes cleanwipe inside to out
(c.) Remove eye make-up every night
(d.) In case of eye flu avoid using handkerchiefs
(e.) Computer users : rule of 20 / after 20 min take a break of 20 sec and look 20 feet away.
(f.) Do not put gulab jal etc in eye.
(g.) Do not use any drops for more than the prescribed time or without your doctor’s advice.
(h.) Protective glasses for anyone with less vision, single eye, field problem.

Tips for Children :
  • Keep away from sharp objects and toys.
  • No kajal
  • Do not ignore eye problems like squint thinking they will become better with time. They can even cause poor vision from disuse- LAZY EYE
  • Regular eye checks- birth, 6months, 3-3.5yrs, 5-6 yrs, yearly for those wearing glasses.
  • Restrict screen use. TV watching <1hour. Mobiles and tablets- bare minimum.
  • Encourage outdoor activity and sun exposure for slower myopia (minus number) progression

Putting eyedrops:

  • Wash your hands with soap and water.
  • Clean your eye(s).
  • Shake bottle vigorously.
  • Tilt head back and look upward.
  • Gently pull the lower lid away from the eye, forming a pouch. If dropper is supplied, hold the dropper tip down to prevent the drops from flowing back into the bulb and becoming contaminated. Never rinse dropper.
  • Place the drop in the pouch. Do not touch with the bottle or dropper the eye or the eyelid.
  • Replace the cap or dropper on the bottle and tighten.
  • Gently close eye and lightly press your finger against the inner corner for a short period.
  • Do not share eye drops
  • If you are using more than one kind of drop at the same time, wait at least five minutes before use of other drops.
  • Store medication in cool place or refrigerator if so indicated on label.
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Eye Diseases


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